实用干货:英语中最常用的修辞手法

我们在汉语写作中经常为了润色而使用各种修辞,让我们的文章更加生动有趣。同样,在英语的写作中修辞(figure of speech)也是非常值得学习的一项技能,更是英专的必修内容!今天我们就简单介绍几个常用的修辞手法~

实用干货:英语中最常用的修辞手法

1. Simile 明喻

明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作对比。这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的自然属性。

标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等。

例如:

1). He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow.

2). I wandered lonely as a cloud.

3). Einstein only had a blanket on, as if he had just walked out of a fairy tale.

2. Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻

隐喻是简缩了的明喻,是将某一事物的名称用于另一事物,通过比较形成。

例如:

1). Hope is a good breakfast, but it is a bad supper.

2). Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

3. Metonymy 借喻,转喻

借喻不直接说出所要说的事物,而使用另一个与之相关的事物名称。

I、以容器代替内容,例如:

1).The kettle boils.

水开了。

2).The room sat silent.

全屋人安静地坐着。

II、以资料、工具代替事物的名称,例如:

Lend me your ears, please.

请听我说。

III、以作者代替作品,例如:

a complete Shakespeare 莎士比亚全集

IV、以具体事物代替抽象概念,例如:

I had the muscle, and they made money out of it.

我有力气,他们就用我的力气赚钱。

4. Synecdoche 提喻

提喻用部分代替全体,或用全体代替部分,或特殊代替一般。

例如:

1). There are about 100 hands working in his factory.

(部分代整体)他的厂里约有100名工人。

2). He is the Newton of this century.

(特殊代一般)他是本世纪的牛顿。

3). The fox goes very well with your cap.

(整体代部分)这狐皮围脖与你的帽子很相配。

5. Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉

这种修辞法是以视、听、触、嗅、味等感觉直接描写事物。通感就是把不同感官的感觉沟通起来,借联想引起感觉转移,“以感觉写感觉”。

例如:

1)The birds sat upon a tree and poured forth their lily like voice.

(用视觉形容听觉,鸟落在树上,由它发出的声音联想到百合花)

鸟儿落在树上,倾泻出百合花似的声音。

2)Taste the music of Mozart.

(用嗅觉形容听觉)品尝Mozart的音乐。

6. Personification 拟人

拟人是把生命赋予无生命的事物。

例如:

1)The night gently lays her hand at our fevered heads.

(把夜拟人化)

2)I was very happy and could hear the birds singing in the woods.

(把鸟拟人化)

7. Hyperbole 夸张

夸张是以言过其实的说法表达强调的目的。它可以加强语势,增加表达效果。

例如:

1)I beg a thousand pardons.

2)Love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars.

3)When she heard the bad news, a river of tears poured out.

8. Parallelism 排比,平行

这种修辞法是把两个或两个以上的结构大体相同或相似,意思相关,语气一致的短语。句子排列成串,形成一个整体。

例如:

1)No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.

2)In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon you and yours, to the last of your bad race, to answer for them. In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon your brother, the worst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.

9. Euphemism 委婉,婉辞法

婉辞法指用委婉,文雅的方法表达粗恶,避讳的话。

例如:

1)He is out visiting the necessary. 他出去方便一下。

2)His relation with his wife has not been fortunate. 他与妻子关系不融洽。

3)My mother passed away in 1997. (去世)

感兴趣的可以关注,薇X:xueyingyu_meten(看直播学单词,告别英语小白)

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