写好概要(summary)的五步骤、三公式(一本书的summary怎么写)

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写好概要(summary)的五步骤、三公式(一本书的summary怎么写)

写好概要(summary)的五步骤、三公式(一本书的summary怎么写)

先说说跟概括能力的重要性——什么是理解能力?

写好概要(summary)的五步骤、三公式(一本书的summary怎么写)

能够把复杂问题简单化、简单问题结构化。这是最好的概括。

写好概要(summary)的五步骤、三公式(一本书的summary怎么写)

回到概要这件事。考虑到我们的高考是为高校选拔人才,所以大部分人学英语的目的,还是为了应对大学的课程需要。所以summary应该还是以学术文章为主的。所以我们下面主要讲的还是academic reading相关的,

写好概要(summary)的五步骤、三公式(一本书的summary怎么写)

写概要summary 、引用quotation 、阐释paraphrase,是在学术阅读中、使用他人作品的三种方式。

写好概要(summary)的五步骤、三公式(一本书的summary怎么写)

概要写作是一件很考验综合能力的事情。一定要严格按照下列步骤,以防止:

写好概要(summary)的五步骤、三公式(一本书的summary怎么写)

l 遗漏要点(main points)

l 写了无关细节,或

l 抄写代替解读(paraphrase)

l 事例代替观点

【写作步骤】

第一步:跳读(注意不是阅读comprehending、不是浏览scanning)

这一步,关注标题和副标题,看看文章大题讲什么。结构整饬的文章,段首句是很有帮助的。

第二步:标注(也只有用原词highlight,最能达此意)

这一次是细读。要划出重要的信息词。如果是考试,会特别选一些文章,其中有些生词,与文章大意关系密切,需要你去理解。

第三步:笔记(这一步有思维导图性质,重要的是逻辑关系)

大部分属于树状结构,找出观点和支持它的要点(注意不是例子和细节)。尽量使用自己的话来阐述。

第四步:书写

到了这一步,就是“组词成句”了。要特别注意:不要添加无关信息,特别是你自己的评价!

第五步:检查

检查是否把所有要点都说到了;组织结构是否清晰;句法用词有无更正。

【语言结构】

从应试角度看,平时熟记一些公式化词语(formulaic phrases),还是很有帮助的。毕竟summary不是看你的创意和文采。这些公式化词语包括三种:

1. 开头。

文章开头句一般有三部分:作者或主人公(WHO),引述动词(reporting verbs),观点(一般为从句)。(参见独佳英语之前的文章,总结为SVA,即谁/什么——做什么/是什么——怎么做的。)

例如:

According to …, …

XXX’s article on global warming discusses…

XXX, in his article \”XXX\”, argues that…

…indicates that…

2. 持续

这个句子主要是引出另一个观点、看法。例如第二个要点、或者另一个不同的观点。常见句式如:

The author goes on to say that…

The article further states that…

… also states/ maintains/ argues/ believes that…

… concludes that…

3. 衔接

相对于原文,概要文本的组织更加重要。衔接手段必不可少,我们可以称之为衔接符号(Transition signals)。一般分三类:

(1)句子衔接词。又叫衔接副词,如also;besides;furthermore;in addition;moreover;additionally;likewise;similarly; equally;in the same way等。

(2)从句连接词。包括并列连词如and,so,but等,和从属连词如though;which;while;as if;so that等。

(3)衔接功能词。通过代词、介词,甚至动词和形容词,都可以标识前后的逻辑关系。比如对比用的another;an additional…;like;despite;be similar to等。

【实操案例】

以2018黄浦区一模卷为例:

Are Open Offices Good for Us?

Four years ago, Chris Nagele did what many other technology executives have done before – moved his team into an open concept office. His staff had been entirely working from home, but he wanted everyone to be together, to connect and cooperate more easily. It quickly became clear, though, that Nagele had made a huge mistake. Everyone was distracted and productivity suffered and nine employees were unhappy, not to mention Nagele himself. About three years after moving into the open office, Nagele moved the company into a 10,000-square foot office where everyone now has their own space — complete with closing doors.

Numerous companies have held the open office — about 70% of US offices are open concept — and very few have moved back into traditional spaces with offices and doors. But research that we\’re 15% less productive, we have huge trouble concentrating in open working spaces, has contributed to a growing criticism against open offices.

Beside the cheaper cost, one main argument for the open workspace is that it increases teamwork. However, it\’s well documented that we rarely brainstorm brilliant ideas when we\’re just shooting the breeze in a crowd. Instead, as many of us know, we\’re more likely to hear about the Christmas gift a colleague is buying for a family member, or problems with your deskmate\’s spouse.

For jobs that require focus, like writing, advertising, financial planning and computer programming, some companies that aren’t ready to abandon open plans are experimenting with quiet and closed spaces. The trouble with that, is some of us don\’t feel comfortable leaving the team to go off on our own—it can feel as if we\’re not pulling our weight if we\’re not present. That\’s particularly true in high-pressure environments. Some of us even feel that escaping to a quiet room is a sign of weakness.

第一步:跳读。

根据标题Are Open Offices Good for Us可知,讨论open offices是否好。

文章的观点,在第一段已经很清楚了:这是一个huge mistake。

第二步:标注。

第三步:笔记。

这两步其实是一步。或者说:我们要努力做到一气呵成。

文章通篇有个特点,就是对比人们采取open offices的初衷、和事与愿违的结果。抓住这个“叶脉”,我们找关键词:

第一段中cooperate more easily和a huge mistake.(connect这里和cooperate同义)

第二段中15% less productive和trouble concentrating(我们总说,关注BUT后面说的)

第三段中increases teamwork和rarely brainstorm brilliant ideas(however后面才是关键)

第四段中jobs that require focus,quiet and closed spaces和don\’t feel comfortable leaving the team(这里的转折词是trouble is)

第四步:书写。

直接看两则范文。红色标注的关键词是得分点:

(1)我们的范文

Many companies advocate open offices to make employees cooperate better. But it proves that people are less productive because they feel hard to concentrate. Second, employees spend more time gossiping than talking about work in open offices. Last, though it\’s good for jobs requiring focus, some feel uncomfortable when working without the team.

(55 words)

(2)试卷参考答案

Though open offices is meant to raise cooperation, employees feel it hard to concentrate, thus reducing productivity. Quiet and closed spaces are better choices for jobs demanding concentration, but some have a feeling of discomfort or weakness to work alone.

(40 words)

附:试卷参考答案给出的得分点

Para 1- 3:

Though open offices is meant to raise cooperation,

employees feel it hard to concentrate, thus

reducing productivity.

Para 4:

Quiet and closed spaces are better choices for jobs demanding concentration,

but some have a feeling

of discomfort or weakness to work alone.

第五步:检查

和试卷“答案”相比,范文(1)在覆盖要点的基础上,更追求“像一篇文章”。具体而言就是遵循了三个“结构公式”。例如:

(一)开头:

Many companies advocate open offices to ….

(二)持续:

But it proves that …;

(三)衔接:

句子衔接词:Second; Last; spend more … than

从句衔接词:but; because; though; when

功能衔接词:advocate; proves that; less productive; without

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